AMBUSH! Arts & Culture
“If you ask me what I came to do in this world, I, an artist, will answer you: I am here to live out loud.”
― Émile Zola
― Émile Zola
Feature: The Blue Whale Challenge
by Alizay Chavez '21
The Blue Whale Challenge, also known as, the Blue Whale Game is a suicide game causing many young deaths. The game lasts about 50 days and is runned by a team of curators that tells players what they have to do. After finishing a task they players must share a photo with the curators. On the 50th day players must commit suicide, At first the tasks are easy, but as time goes on it gets harder and harder (Express Web Desk, 2017). No one actually know how the players and curators keep in contact. Some sites say that they use instagram and facebook to contact curators. They use hashtags like #bluewhalechallenge or #i_am_whale (Express Web Desk, 2017). Other sites say they use the website VK.com. Once the game begins there is no way out. Some tasks players are asked to do is to carve a quote on their arm or hand. Even drawing a whale on a piece of paper. The 30th task to the 50th task get darker (Dwilson, 2017). At first many people believed that the blue whale challenge was a hoax, but many are now starting to believe it. At least 4 deaths were caused by the blue whale challenge in the United States. Outside of the United States the blue whale challenge caused about 130 deaths (Dwilson, 2017).
The Blue Whale Challenge originated from Russia. A 21 year old man by the name of Philipp Budeikin founded the blue whale challenge. The Blue Whale Challenge started in the year 2013 on the website VK.com and was used to attract children.This past year Budeikin was charged with at least 16 schoolgirl deaths caused by the game. He was sentenced with 3 years in prison (Mann, 2017). After being asked about pushing the girls to their death, Budeikin’s response was, “Yes, I truly was doing that. Don’t worry, you’ll understand they were dying happy. I was giving them what they didn’t have in real life; warmth, understanding connections.” He also said that he was “cleansing society” and that he was getting rid of “biological waste.” According to psychologists, “[these] young girls have most likely fallen in love with Budeikin because they were lacking love in their own lives from their parents and [he] provided them with the attention [they needed]” (Mann, 2017). A 26 year old was also taken into custody for at least 30 teenage girls deaths, On November 4th a 17 year old boy was rescued from a railroad. He was trying to kill himself due to the blue whale challenge. The police found a notebook filled with many different ways that the boy plan to kill himself. For example they found a page where it said that he wanted to hang himself (Mann, 2017). The police all around the world have been reporting other cases like this.
Isaiah Gonzalez a 15 year old boy killed himself in July of 2017. He lived streamed his suicide on facebook. It can still be seen on the internet. Gonzalez hung himself in his closet. He used a shoe to hold up his phone. No one saw his suicide coming. His family and friends described him as a caring and sweet person. He had just joined JROTC and was having a great time(Dwilson, 2017). A 16 year old girl from Atlanta Georgia also killed herself because of the blue whale challenge. Her family now realized that the pictures she was drawing gave them some hints that she was playing the game. She use to draw whales for her art classes. Her mother also said that she was doing weird things like sitting on the roof (Dwilson, 2017). Chase a 12 year old boy was another victim of the blue whale challenge. He took his life in August of 2017. His family loved him to death, but he was bullied a lot in school. As the law enforcement were investigating his death they found out that two other girls from his school were playing the game as well. They are now getting the help that they need (Dwilson, 2017). Natasha Cadena was the oldest of the group that were killed in the United States. She was 32 when she died. She committed suicide in July. The people around her said that she did hurtful things to herself. She used to cut herself and video taped it. She would send those videos to a woman named “Loretta” a woman from France. Family members also said that Cadena also sent “Loretta” money. Cadena hung herself and that is where police found her phone. This is how the police found out about “Loretta” (Dwilson, 2017). Some victims that weren’t from the United States was Rina Palenkova. Palenkova had taken a selfie right before stepping in front of a train (Dwilson, 2017). A student who was participating in the blue whale challenge, but was saved by his family said, “the manipulation was so deeply psychological that it was hard to say no” (Dwilson, 2017). All of the victims of the blue whale challenge have been manipulated in some way.
Here are some signs that most players and victims have shown that they are playing the game. If someone you know starts sharing posts with these following hashtags: #f57, #f40, or #imawhale. Beware if they start looking for a whale. That is a huge sign that they want to join the game. If someone wakes up at 4:20 to do unusual tasks is another sign. Self harming is another sign. If they carve yes into their body is one of the things that their “whale” might ask them to do. Also if they all of sudden start standing on the edge of a roof or a bridge. If they are physically hurting themselves can also be a sign, but that one is tricky. With that sign they could be playing the game or there is another reason to why they are hurting themselves (Dwilson, 2017). Some of these signs could be a sign that someone is playing the game.. For example 4:20 is normally associated with weed. The sign about them doing weird things at 4:20 could also mean that they like weed. If they do more than one of these signs that is a huge clue that they may be playing the blue whale challenge, so beware of these signs (Dwilson, 2017). You might be able to save someone.
According to psychologists teenagers are more vulnerable to these types of challenges because it is on the internet . They feel like it is a place that they can do anything. There is no restriction to what they do when they are on social media or any other part of the internet (IANS, 2017). Teenagers normally love taking risks. The Blue whale challenge gives them an opportunity to take huge risks. Some teenagers have really low self-esteem. The Blue Whale challenge helps them feel like they are worth something. Their curator shows them the love and attention they need for their own survival (IANS, 2017). To teenagers that have low self-esteem the Blue Whale challenge gives them a source of inspiration and that is why they would do anything for their “whale.” These teenagers are lost in a place where they are vulnerable . They are also lonely and crying out for the attention that they want. The “whales” give them the attention that they need (IANS, 2017). One way that psychologist are telling parents to do is to talk to your children when they are vulnerable. They also want parents to talk to their children about the dangers of challenges like the Blue Whale challenge.
There are many opinions about the Blue Whale challenge. Many believe that it is real and others believe that it is a myth. According to the website xnspy the blue whale challenge is true. According to them the number of suicides caused by the challenge is increasing. They also said that at least 130 deaths in Russia are linked to the Blue Whale Challenge, but according to the investigation there are no reliable links to the game. According to Radio Free Europe, the teens that committed suicide “were simply attracted to this subculture (XNspy, 2017).” This might be true, but what if they were to scared to stop the game? Once you start the game there is no stopping it. According to Sarah Elsesser the author of the article, Is ‘Blue Whale Challenge’ real? What Parents Need to Know Now, said that even if the Blue Whale challenge is a hoax, it shines a light on the way social media influences young teenagers to do things that aren’t always right. There is no clear evidence that the Blue Whale challenge is real.
Here are some useful links for you to use if you are struggling with mental health issues:
National Suicide Prevention Hotline
Mental Health Hotline
Crisis Text line
Text HOME to 741741
Feature: The Fake Native American Jewelry Trade
by Sage Addington '18
Wu Gaun-Zhong once said, “If you plagiarize others’ techniques, you steal their emotions and tell your spectators a lie with your work. Works as such equal zero.” In the art world, art thievery is one of the greatest obstacles to overcome. When someone steals your art you are at a loss of credit, appreciation, and depending, a loss of income. For many native artists, their artwork is their economic and cultural livelihood. When your art is your livelihood and your livelihood is stolen and undermined by cheap imitations, it is devastating.
Jewelry is not the market it used to be, people do not care about owning authentic jewelry. When I was a little girl, I remember my grandma making jewelry in her crowded little bedroom. I remember watching her and accidentally kicking over tins of polished stone beads, and then having to re-organize them. I remember being my grandma’s little helper and attempting to sell her products at the flea markets in Gallup, Window Rock, and Yatahee. I remember being awful at pushing merchandise, but my grandma being pretty good at it. For this feature, I asked my grandma why she had stopped making and selling her crafts and she told me,
“Jewelry just doesn’t sell.”
I remember mostly selling clothes and used toys. My grandma sat down beside me in the dining room and explained that she loved making jewelry, but even her friends who always made a killing, were struggling. In her words,
“you can buy plastic that looks exactly the same.”
In an awful way, she is right. Why drop $60 on a pair of earrings that you could have for $5?
Cheap blue plastic can replace the sky-blue turquoise stones the Navajo once thought were shattered pieces of the rich colored sky. Zinc can replace beautifully molded sterling silver. Instead of authentic stones and metals hand crafted by the hands of hard working artisans, you can easily find machine-made imitation carnelian, coral, onyx, copper, and silver. However, plastic cannot replace the food one needs to eat to survive and the bills that need to be paid. Plastic cannot replace the tired hands that gently place the important stones in metal holds. Plastic cannot replace a culture’s integrity behind an artwork. Plastic cannot replace a culture.
Plagiarizing Native American jewelry and design is appropriation and steals from already struggling communities. Appropriation is defined as the act of stealing something for one’s own use, without the owner’s permission. Artists who work very hard and are deeply connected with their culture must be insulted by cheap replicas, made without the same soul they put into their work. The stealing of designs from tribes has caused communities that depend on the jewelry trade to struggle immensely. Approximately $1 billion a year in fake Indian arts and crafts is stolen from Indigenous peoples. According to the Indian Country Media Network, approximately up to 80% of indigenous art on the market is FAKE.
According to an article by the New York Times, Brazilians, Nigerians and Pakistanis have weaved copies of Apache, Navajo, and Pima baskets. Reportedly Mexicans weave imitation Navajo blankets and the Chinese carve animal fetishes. Thai workers make imitation jewelry, and Filipino workers “specialize” in Hopi kachina dolls and Zuni Inlaid jewelry. Most Indian art that is on the market is not even made by Indigenous people.
The United States government has tried to make an Act to help ensure the buyers of Indian arts and crafts are getting authentic products, calling it the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990. The Act entails that it is illegal to misrepresent a product as made by an Indigenous American if it is not. In order for a product to be marketed using the term “Indian,” “American Indian,” “Native American,” etc. the creator must be either a member of a state or federally-recognized tribe, or be an individual that is certified by a tribe as a nonmember Indian artisan. If someone is caught having violated the law, their first violation could end up in fines up to $250,000 and jail terms up to five years. Repeated offenses can face fines up to $1 million and a sentence of 15 years in jail.
Although it is against the law, many native artist still have to fight hard to protect their art and name. A recent case in October hits close to home. The owner of a few Old Town Albuquerque Jewelry Stores pleaded guilty to fraudulently selling “Native American-Made” jewelry, that was actually Filipino-Made. Nael Ali, owner of the shop, reportedly sold numerous pieces of fake Native American jewelry to undercover officers such as rings, earrings, bracelets and pendants; he had been representing them as by Native Americans from tribes such as the Navajo Nation and Zuni Pueblo. Luckily, the undercover officers were able to bust the faux jewelry handler. The two stores Ali owned that were busted for fraudulent jewelry were Gallery 8 and Galleria Azul. As stated earlier, countries that aren’t American are creating the counterfeits.
The communities hit the hardest by the fake native jewelry trade are the Hopi, Navajo, and Zuni tribes. The Hopi, Navajo, and Zuni combined account for 90% of all Southwest Indian jewelry sold. In communities like Zuni, the jewelry trade is a main source of income. I attempted to get ahold of the Zuni trading post Turquoise Village and ask them a few questions, but was told that they are currently off work for the holidays. I wanted to know how many artists the business employs, whether or not is is hard to spot fake arts and crafts, whether or not counterfeits have negatively impacted the market, and what role jewelry makers play in Zuni’s community, economically. Unfortunately, my questions were not able to answered, but I was able to talk to Gina Bowekaty briefly. I was told that since Turquoise Village is located in the center of the village, the business employs many artists, and the manager Elaine has an easier time telling the difference between real and counterfeit art.
Native arts and crafts are sold everywhere from tourist stores in gas stations, to art galleries, so it can be hard determining where to buy authentic jewelry and know that your money is going straight to the artist. It helps to buy jewelry from an established dealer who can give you a written guarantee or written verification of authenticity. If possible, get a receipt that includes all the “need to know” information like the metal used, stones used, and whether or not it was handmade by an Indian artisan. Some native artists sell inexpensive souvenir types, but typically authentic, high-quality jewelry can be expensive. As far as appearance goes, well-crafted jewelry does not have wavering lines or lopsided designs. Designs that are often stamped onto silver come out crisp, but imitations are often blurry. Make sure to look for an artist’s “hallmark,” symbol, or signature, as it is used to identify their work.
If you come into contact with some Indian art that is not authentic, what do you do? The right thing to do, is not ignore it. Authentic native arts and crafts compete daily with the fraudulent ones and the purchasement of faux art not only harms one particular seller, it harms the overall Indian art/craft market, and threatens the livelihood of artisans and craftspeople. Plagiarized counterfeits hurt small communities in large ways. Plus, wouldn’t you be witnessing, or even supporting a crime? The Indian Arts and Crafts Board (IACB) receives and refers valid complaints about violations of the Indian Arts and Crafts Act to the FBI and to the Department of Justice for legal action. To file a complaint under the Act, call the Indian Arts and Crafts Board or the U.S Department of Interior at 1-888-ART-FAKE (1-888-278-3253). You can write the Indian Arts and Crafts Board at email@example.com, or 1849 C Street, N.W., MS 2528-MIB, Washington, D.C. 20240. If you choose to complain to the IACB, you should include:
Stolen jewelry designs are worse than tank tops with “Navajo rug designs” on them, and hipsters dancing with headdresses at music festivals. Too many people are being ripped off, and too many people are losing respect for handcrafted jewelry. Jewelry making is a delicate art and is spiritual to some; for something of that importance to be desecrated, it genuinely hurts. For the sake of people trying to make an honest living and for the sake of people doing what they love, when you buy Indian arts and crafts, check to see if they are authentic, and report the seller if otherwise.
Last Week's Poll Results!
Last week we asked Ambush! Poll takers if they knew the origin of Christmas and 100% of survey takers said they did.
Yule Love This!
by Alizay Chavez '21
Yule also known as Yuletide is a festival celebrated by the Pagan religion. Yule begins on December 21. Some Pagans and Wiccans have a story that they share about the Oak King and the Holly King. The Oak King represents the light of the year. The Holly King is the symbol of darkness.
Modern Pagans still have a tree, lights, presents, and dinner like most people do. They mainly focus on the changes of the Earth (Haskell,2010). There are many ways to celebrate Yule. One way is to decorate your home with sacred plants that represents the Winter Solstice. Some sacred plants are holly, evergreens, mistletoes, and other plants. Another way is to put up lights to represent the Oak King (Fox, 2017).
Both the Holly King and Oak King represents the battle between the light and the dark. The Oak King is the strongest during Litha and the Holly King is the strongest during Yule. Pagans celebrate the rebirth of the sun also know as, the Oak King. According to Pagans the reason why we hang up holly is for the Holly King’s day. The Holly King is represented like a version of Santa Claus (Wigington, 2017). Yule is also the celebration of Sol the goddess of sun’s longest trip. She guides the sun around the Earth. She rides her chariot around the earth alongside her sister Mani the goddess of the moon. In some theories Sol and Mani were chased by wolves (Hijuki and Bil) and follows them in Heaven.
So What is Cosplay?
by Alizay Chavez '21
There are cosplayers who are called fanservice; these cosplayers will do anything for their fans from yaoi to yuri and many other things. Yaoi is a slang term for boys love or homosexuality. Yuri is almost the same as yaoi, but it applies to female homosexuality. There is also the attention seeker. They do anything for attention. We all know someone like that. There are cosplayers that create their own costumes or create their own costumes; they are known as costume cosplayers. There are also the destroyers; they “destroy” every character they try to cosplay as (Cosplay Cantabile, 2014). There are so many more types of cosplayers in the world. Linny L’a Vante is a cosplayer that I just recently met. I asked her a few things regarding cosplay.
The first thing that I asked her was how people react to her cosplays. Her reply was that most people are “kind and respectful” about it. They are curious about the way she makes her costumes and likes to take photos with her. The next thing that I asked her was if she got any negative comments and what are some of them. Her reply was that many people think that she doesn’t have the right body for the characters that she likes to cosplay as.
I also asked her how long it takes for her to dress up and she said that it takes her about 1.5 hours to about 3 hours. This includes makeup and hair. It really depends on the cosplay. Since Linny makes her own costumes I asked her how long it takes for her to make her own costumes. She said that for less complicated costumes it takes her 80 hours to 100 hours. For more complicated costumes it takes 150 hours to about 250 hours. The last question I asked her was if she had any advice for beginners. Her reply was for beginners to
“just start with the basics and try new things every time. You will make a lot of mistakes and maybe throw away a pin pillow at some point, but if wearing a self-made cosplay is making you happy just keep going.”
She is such a great cosplayer. From the pictures of some of her cosplays you can see the effort she puts into it. You can also tell that she loves what she does.
How Does Drama Warm Up Before a Show?
by Sage Addington '18
Before a performance, warming up your voice and getting out those pre-stage jitters is essential as a drama kid. The following video is the cast of Tracks warming up on their second show night.
Last Week's Poll Results!
Last week we asked Ambush! Readers if they knew about drag kings before reading our article and 75% said they sure did while the remaining 25% said they didn't.
Are You Naughty or Nice?
by Angelic Lopez '19
Don't Be a Drag: Male Illusionists
by Alizay Chavez '21
The first question I asked him was if there was a difference between male illusionists and drag kings. Saine replied saying, “I say male illusionist because more people could understand what it means more than drag king. Drag Kings aren’t so commonly known, so sometimes the term drag king is confusing. Male illusionist brings people more to the point.” It is true that most people don’t know what drag kings are. The next question I asked him was why he decided to become a male illusionist. He said that he is “bi-gender.” Bi-gender is a person who identifies as a female and a male. He also has a degree in theatre. He enjoys to entertain others. Being a male illusionist gives him the opportunity to show off his masculinity and to entertain others at the same time.
The next question I asked was about chest binding. Drag kings more than often have to chest bind to make their breasts appear flat like a male's chest. Saine said that he uses a chest binder in a size C. A chest binder is sort of like a super tight sports bra or shirt that compresses the chest; because it compresses, it shouldn't be worn for extensive periods of time or while exercising because it can cause damage to the ribs (such as cracking). Saine purchases his binders from www.underworld.com He also tape binds, but he said that it is not safe to do. Chest binding with tape can be dangerous because it can cause chafing and sometimes tear the skin. One method of chest binding that should always be avoided is the ace bandage. Ace bandages are hard to bind with because it comes out uneven and can cause damage to the ribs.
I also asked him about packers. A packer is a silicone penis with balls that is placed in the pants to give the appearance of a bulge. Saine does use packers and named his Fernando. By wearing a packer it makes him “feel more like a man, but it also changes [his] walk to be more masculine.” After that I asked about the way he has to change his body movements. He said that males are more opened (meaning their feet are often more spread apart than a females) and they take up more space. Justin Saine performs at least one to three times a week.
Below is a video of drag king Spikey Van Dykey.
Movie Review: Justice League
by Rocco Addington '20
The main problems that lie within this movie are due to the cuts made by Warner brothers. What we got in theaters was a highly condensed cut of the original film. The movie constantly cuts to big moment, to big moment, to big moment. I felt like this movie would have been way better if they just released the full version, so my hopes are high for the extended cut. Much like the other DC films they made everything look like it was made in a computer, usually I don’t have a problem with this but it took me out of the action completely. This fake looking cinematography is a result of Zack Snyder's film style.
One of the things that made me personally like the movie less is the problems with Batman and Superman starting with Superman; the way they brought him back is probably my least favorite part of the movie. It felt rushed and half-assed. They killed him off then immediately brought him back, there was zero shock value at all. Superman overall was just super out of place, and was brought back in such a sloppy way. Batman is my least favorite part of this movie, he was kinda useless. In Batman v Superman he was ridiculously awesome, but in this movie he was just there, he didn’t really do anything. They made him more like tony stark than Batman. The Batman that we got in the previous movie, that Batman was brooding, smart, and a fighting machine. The Batman we got in this movie was a joker, he was used more like comic relief than anything. I really wished they did more with him. Being a Batman fan this pissed me off a lot, but it doesn't really matter in the full scheme of the movie.
Despite all the problems with this movie this doesn't change the fact that this is a good movie. From the moment it started to the moment it ended I wasn't really disappointed with the movie, in fact I left the theater wanting to see it a again. One of the best parts of this movie is the jokes, me along with the theater were laughing and cheering the whole time. The jokes we great and funny, and their delivery was spot on. Unlike Thor: Ragnarok there was not a joke where I felt like it felt flat, and even though there was a lot of jokes it didn't throw the tone of the movie off. The characters in this movie were a huge upside, there was a lot of character development to all of the characters. For example Cyborg and flash, those two charters were by far one of the greatest parts of his movie.
They did Cyborg perfectly, he was portrayed as a man who is ashamed and also afraid of what he has become, and throughout the movie you'll see the brilliant character development and his journey to acceptance.
The flash was so good, I had low expectations after I saw how he looked in Batman v Superman, but after this movie I was super happy with how he turned out. I love how they developed his character, they made it clear right of way that he is a nerdy, caring and a heroic person. They portrayed him as a young man coming to terms with his mother's death and also finding out ways to help people with his powers.
This movie had a ton of great references to the comics, some were inside jokes, lines of dialogue, and in the background. There are so many I cannot list them all, so I'll just chose the green lantern one. I choose to do this one because, it's not a spoiler and it doesn't take away from the actual movie. I'm so happy how they added this in, the green lantern was not even on screen for a few seconds, but that's what makes it great. It was great because it didn't take away fro the scene, but also gave us enough screen time to make DC fans jump for joy.
Overall, this movie had some problems, but most of us can agree that this wasn't a bad movie by any means. This movie wasn't boring and confusing like Batman v Superman, or unfunny and sloppy like suicide squad. This movie was action packed and filled with great moments and personally I can wait to see it again. Once you can look past the bad CGI, the cuts made by Warner Brothers, and the change in directors you'll see a great movie. Much like wonder woman this gave me hope for the Future of the DCEU and gave me high hopes for all of the upcoming movies. This is definitely a movie I would recommend to everyone.
What the Heck is a Vulva?
by Sage Addington '18
Collectively, the external organs of the female reproductive system is known as the vulva. There are six parts to the vulva: the clitoris, labia majora, labia minora, mons pubis, and urethral opening.
The clitoris is only partially visible as it is actually almost four inches long and is mostly hidden from view within the female body; it is behind the labia and surrounds the vagina. The clitoris is made up of the clitoral head, the hood, the clitoral shaft, urethral sponge, erectile tissue, glands, vestibular bulbs, and clitoral legs. Externally you can only see the head and the hood of the clitoris. When aroused it is the bulbs and legs that become swollen and throbby.
The labia majora is basically the outside of the vulva. The labia majora consists of two large folds of fatty tissue that runs the lengthways of either side of the mons pubis to the perineum (the skin between the vulva and anus).
Like the labia majora, the labia minora consists of folds. The labia minora consists of two smaller folds within the labia majora; they surround the clitoris and form the hood that protects it. When a girl is aroused, the labia minora can fill with blood, swell and become erect.
The mons pubis is a pad of fat that lies protectively over the pubic bone. After puberty, it is covered in hair.
Because hair grows on the mons pubis people often “trim the hedge” or “mow the lawn” to keep things tame down there, but interestingly enough doctors at the University of California, San Francisco, have reported the frequent removal of pubic hair is associated with an increased risk for herpes, syphilis and human papillomavirus. Out of 7,500 men and women aged 18 to 65, people who have removed their pubic hair at least once in their lifetimes were nearly twice as likely to say they have had an STD at least once. “Extreme groomers,” meaning those who have removed all their pubic hair more than 11 times a year, were more than four times likely to say they have had an infection. Those who groom their pubes ever few months fell between the spectrum and were three times as likely to say they have caught something before.
Unfortunately, the study on how grooming links to STIs is a bit limited; studies have failed to include whether or not people were having safe sex or getting vaccinated for HPV, and whether they were diagnosed with a STD before they started grooming. Pubic hair is likely there for a reason and acts as a mechanical barrier like eyebrows; it traps bacteria and debris. You can remove it, but be aware that there may be a correlation between a lack of pubic hair and STIs.
My friends, male and female, didn’t realize that women don’t pee out of their vaginas. The opening of the urethra is located between the vagina and the clitoris.
The cervix is the narrow neck of the uterus that opens into the vagina. The cervix is typically the width of a pencil and allows sperm and period blood to pass through. During childbirth the cervix dilates and allows the passage of the baby. To determine how soon childbirth will begin after labor when one is pregnant, the dilation of the cervix is measured.
The Fallopian tubes are very narrow tubes that connect the uterus and the ovaries; the tubes open at the uterus and gradually get wider as they extends towards the ovary. Fallopian tubes transport male sperm cells to the egg, provide the environment for fertilization, and transport the egg from the ovary to the uterus.
Since the fallopian tubes are connected to the uterus, the tubes contain many of the same tissues as the womb. The outermost layer is called the serosa and is very thin, the second layer is the deep serosa, and the innermost layer is the mucosa. The serosa consists of a serous membrane and therefore secrets thin serous fluid from the serosa and lubricates the fallopian tubes, protecting them from friction with neighboring organs. The deep to the serosa has a muscularis layer the contains the visceral muscle tissue that allows the movement of the fallopian tubes.
The fallopian tubes also contain cells that have hairlike structures called cilia. Cilia helps move the egg and sperm cells through the fallopian tubes through it’s swaying motions and the muscular contractions of the tube’s walls work in a rhythmic fashion. Fertilized or not, it takes three to four days for an egg to reach the uterus.
The ovaries are connected to the fallopian tubes and play two major roles in the female reproductive system. The ovaries act as glands and gonads, producing estrogen other various female sex hormones. Estrogen is the hormone that controls the changes of the mammary glands and uterus during puberty, and stimulates the development of the uterine lining during a menstrual cycle.
When a woman is born her ovaries contain approximately two million eggs; women are born will all the eggs they are ever going to have. Although women are born with approximately two million eggs, thousands of them die every month prior to puberty. Around the middle of the menstrual cycle an egg is released and carried through the fallopian tube and to the uterus.
The uterus is a pear-shaped organ that is connected to the cervix and vagina. The upper portion of the uterus is a wider region and is called the corpus, or body, and is superior to the narrow area called the cervix. The corpus of the uterus is where a fertilized egg can attach itself and develop during pregnancy. Superior to the body, a domed region known as the fundus is above and connects to the fallopian tubes.
When a woman gets closer to ovulation, the uterus builds a layer of vascular endometrial tissue in preparation to receive a fertilized egg cell. If an egg cell is not fertilized by the time it reaches the uterus, it will pass through the organ and trigger the blood vessels of the endometrium to shed. Menstruation, or period, is the shedding of the egg cell and uterine lining. The uterus sheds its lining approximately every 28 days after a girl has hit puberty.
If an egg is successfully fertilized, it will implant itself into the endometrial lining where it will develop into an embryo and eventually a fetus. As the embryo develops into a fetus, a change within the endometrium is triggered, leading to the formation of the placenta. The placenta provides vital nutrients and oxygen to the developing fetus.
At the end of pregnancy and prior to delivery, hormones are released that trigger waves of “smooth muscle contraction.” At the same time as that, the cervix begins to dilate; the cervix dilates from less than a centimeter to around ten centimeters. Once the cervix is fully dilated, the uterus contracts drastically until the baby can be pushed out of the uterus, through the vagina, and out of the woman’s body.
Last, but not least, there is the trusty vagina. The vagina is a muscular neck that leads from the vulva to the cervix. It serves as a passageway for menstrual blood to come out once a month after puberty, forms part of the birth canal during labor, and is typically the sight of penetration during intercourse. During sexual activity the blood vessels in the walls of the vagina fill with blood and swell.
Last Week's Poll Results!
Last week we asked Ambush! Readers if they were sad about Warped Tour ending and 100% of survey takers said yes.
Wrapping up Warped Tour
by Alizay Chavez '21
Sum 41, Simple Plan. MxPx, New Found Glory, and Good Charlotte.” There are so many bands who had the chance to perform on the Vans Warped Tour stage.
Lyman got to witness the birth of the emo culture with bands like, “Thrice, Thursday, The Used, Taking Back Sunday, The Starting Line, Motion City Soundtrack and Jimmy Eats World.” Lyman also said that “Warped Tour helped launch the careers of Fall Out Boy, My Chemical Romance, and Avenged Sevenfold.” These bands are pretty famous now. According to Lyman he has seen over a thousand bands perform over the last 23 summers. He hopes that Warped Tour will continue to inspire creativity and ambition. He is also proud of the community he has created and wanted to thank all the people who come out each year. He also wanted to thank the amazing crew has worked hard over the years.
You can view the final tour dates at http://vanswarpedtour.com/dates/
Drama Club Presents Tracks!
by Sage Addington '18
Glitter and Facial Hair
by Angelic Lopez '19
Movie Review: Ragnarok
by Rocco Addington '20
I found this movie to be such a filler movie. This movie just tells you what's happening with Hulk and Thor while a civil war going on. Now this isn't a spoiler but if you didn't watch the trailer and want the movie to be as shocking as possible skip to the next paragraph. If you haven’t left yet, good. So Thor’s hammer gets destroyed, big shocker right? Wrong if you guys have seen the behind the scenes on the upcoming movie Avengers Infinity War. In one of the screen shots what do you see? Thor’s freaking hammer!!! This is one of my complaints with the entire Marvel cinematic universe, they are no consequences. This just made all of the shocks in this movie pointless to me. But if you’re a casual watcher then this is no big deal, but if you’re a fan then this should be a huge disappointment.
Excluding spoilers, those were my biggest problems with the movie. Now, time to be more nit picky. During the fight scenes you can notice the drop in quality. It looked like a pre-rendered video game trailer and I wouldn't be talking about it if it didn't take me out of the action. Over all it is a great movie with some minor flaws, but that can be expected in every superhero movie. If you haven't seen it already, I recommend you do.
Last Week's Poll!
Before Thanksgiving break we asked Ambush! Poll takers if they were celebrating Thanksgiving and 50% said yes while the other 50% said just the food eating part.